IT SKILLS Chapter 9 (2020)


Q: What is search engine? How can we search information from the web?

Ans:  Search Engine:
It is a type of web site, which provides the facility to search any type of information and web site from the Internet as per your requirement. Search engines search the information based on the name of web sites or contents in websites. They have a database of different websites of different types from where it searches your web query.

They provide two types of searches: –

1. Simple Search

2. Advance Search

  1. Simple Search:

Simple search is for the new user or for ordinary searches. Most users do not need to used advance search on the web.

There are many different types of search engines available on the Internet such as:

Using search engine:

To perform any search for a web site or web content, you must perform the following steps.

  1. Your computer should be turned on and connected to the internet.
  2. Your computer should have login into your operating system & you should have a web browser installed. Such as google chrome, Firefox, brave browser, opera, UC browser or Microsoft Edge. Etc.
  3. If you have all the requirements fulfilled then now open your preferred browser and click in the Address bar of the browser and start typing the URL of your preferred search engine. Such as Google, Bing or Yahoo etc. (In my case it will be Google). Then click enter from the keyboard.
    (After few second your search engine will load up on the screen).
  4. You will see a box with search written on it right side. The box is a text box you will click on it with the mouse and start typing your query.
    For Example you are trying to find our college website, you will have to type our college name in the box and click on search button or Press enter from the keyboard.

    Image as below taken from google.

Now that you have pressed enter the browser will submit the data to the search engine and then after receiving data from your browser the search engine will process it by checking the criteria of your search and matching it with its database, next it will generate a list of result that match the criteria.

  • The result will be displayed on the screen in the browser window on your computer. You will then review the most relevant result to your search.
    Image attached below:
  • You will then select your preferred website. In our case it was
  • Now after you click on your preferred website from the list of websites it produced as a result of your query.
    Note if you don’t see any relevant click on next page until you find the relevant result or change the search term.

If your are looking for a very specific result then you may have to perform advance search option of google.

Note that not all search engine have advance search option as google.

pk domain in for Pakistan specific version of google. While rest of the world will be connected to there country specific or The reason for that is country specific shows relevant result of that specific country while shows result of all over the world which may not be relevant to you.

Advance Search:

Advance search provides extra information to users. Its search requires information to be in special format.

Search Criteria Rules:

Different search engine provides different rules to enter search criteria in a text box. Some search engine has different options to each other such as: 

For Google Search Engine:

Google advance search provides many options such as find specific term in your result from all the websites in it database. In the image above you can see that it has option such as:
Find pages with…

All these words:

This exact word or phase

Any of these words:

None of these words:

Number ranging from:

The narrow your results:



Last update

Site or domain

Safe search

File type

Usage rights

Note with every field google provides description for that field. Student should perform a practical by using google advance search it will be fun & it will make your understanding better.

Search Results:

When you press search button, the search engine performs the processing to search your text in different websites and provides you a list of different but related and only specific to your search criteria website will be displayed. Now you select your desired web site and view your required information that you were searching for from the internet.

Such as on our website:

This is our website updates page were all updates are available. All social media updates and direct web updates are viewable here.

Additionally you can read more about how google search works here:

Q. What is an email address?
Why we use Email?
Are all email addresses the same?
What are some examples of how to use email?

Ans: Sending An Email:


Email stands for Electronic mail. Email is the most common used method of communication in the world. Using email, you can communicate with people almost anywhere in the world with the help of Internet.


E-mail links computer by internet access connections and allow users via electronic mailboxes which are called inbox to send and receive messages.

E-mail address:

E-mail address acts similar as the post office (P.O) boxes where people receive letters. An email address is the certain location of electronic mailboxes on Internet to send and receive messages.

Structure of Email:

An email address consists of two parts:

(a) User ID
(b) Domain Name.

A special symbol @ is used to separate user Id from domain name.

For example:

[email protected]   

[email protected]

In the above example’s info are User ID and and are Domain Name where these user’s ids are registered.

Rules for Email Addresses:

Email address names can be either in lowercase or uppercase and can include digits, Alphabets, Underscore, hyphen and a dot.

You cannot use any special character such as

\ , \ , ! , @ , ” , ‘ $ , #, A , &,*, ( , ) etc or Spaces

Are Two E-mail addresses same?

Email addresses are always unique, so there is no email address in the world that is equivalent to other mail address. It means no two addresses are same at any time.

How to use Email:

Email is very easy to use. All the software normally used for emailing are similar to each other. It depend on your usage. If you are using a personal email for personal use or commercial email for commercial use.

Commercial email clients (software) have more features than the personal email clients (software) do, since they are usually used for bulk emailing as a result many features are added to make emailing in bulk easy.

To send emails to anyone do the following steps:

  1. Open any email website like
  2. Give email ID and Password in the related text boxes.
  3. Your email inbox will be open. (You can review any received emails)
  4. Click on Compose or New button to write email.
  5. A page will open with different text boxes.
  6. Type recipient email address in To: text box.
  7. Type subject of your content in Subject: text box.
  8. Type your message in message windows.
  9. You can attach media files as well. You can attach upto 25MB media files per email.
  10. When you finished writing and had review your email message you can click on the Send button to send   email.
  11. A message “Your email has been sent” might appear.

Image below for reference how a web email client looks:



Attaching Files to email:

As mentioned, before you can attach media files upto 25MB in an email. To attach the file with your email, you will have to follow these steps:

  1.  During the composing email. Such as writing message you can at any time attach media files.
  • Click on Attach files button below the subject text box, A window from your operating system will appear having a File name box and Browse button
  • Click on Browse button and browse to the file you desire to send as an attachment in this email and select the desired file to attach.
  • Click Attach Files button.
    A message may appear ” Your file has been attached or uploading” will appear.
  • You can continue to write email. When you are done writing you should be able to see that the uploading status has disappeared.
  • If the uploading status has disappeared or change with attachment, then you should review your message and click done. You email will be send.
  • But if the uploading status is still there you will have to wait for it to complete uploading while you are waiting you can review your message. When the status changes from uploading you can click send and email will be sent.

 1 Composing an email

 2 clicking on add an attachment

 Browsing in the file explorer to the place where my desired attachment is.

 Browsing in the file explorer to the place where my desired attachment is.

 Browsing in the file explorer to the place where my desired attachment is.

Selecting my desired attachment

 Viewing the file attached in the email to see if the upload is complete or not
 Reviewing email message before sending for any mistakes.

 Adding remaining message or correcting my mistake

 Formatting the Message with text customization box menu

  Formatting the Message with text customization box menu

 I made the text larger for better viewing.

Reviewing receiving email address. Subject and message. Also making sure that my attachment is correct one.

Clicking on send.

  • All above images explain / refer to the process of sending email. The above example uses Gmail web.

Student Note:
Always add a subject if you are sending email to secure domain or secure email client the email will be blocked and in many cases the person who was send that email will never see that email because it was deleted or was being hold in spam folder.

How to receive Emails:

To receive email, do the following steps:

  1. To open any email you will have to open the email client that you may have installed on your pc as an application software or you will have to visit web client on its website like
  2. It will ask you for your authentication email ID and password. Input your email ID and password in their fields.
  3. After you click log in it will  take you to your email homepage or inbox will open. If not then click on the Check mail button or Inbox to check email.
  4. A page containing list of all the emails in your inbox will open.
  5. To open any email click on subject of email highlighted.
  6. The required email will open containing the sender email id and the message.
  7. Image Below:

Q.   Write the advantage and disadvantage of an email?


Advantages of E-mail:

1     Email is used to send message via an internet.

2     It is fast, flexible and reliable. 

3     It is almost free to use.

4     It is available all over the world where there is Internet.

5     Email gives us facility to send pictures, sound, and video as an attachment along with email message without any cost.

6. A single email message can be send to many people at the same time even if there are attachment with it.

7. Sending an email takes only the time to write and format it.

8. Email is delivered quickly in few second after sending the email anywhere in the world. You can even receive the reply in few seconds which is way faster the traditional Mail/post service.

9. Email can be sent to anyone, all you need is their Email ID.

Disadvantages of an email:

  1. Someone can hack your email account and can read your confidential messages.
  2. Sometimes email does not reach its destination due to some errors such as incorrect entry of destination email ID/Address.
  3. Email is not necessarily private.
  4. Some old email systems can send or receive text files only.
  5. It is possible to forget email ID or password.
  6. It is possible to send you virus & malware through email.
  7. It is possible for a hacker to send a email that can cause your computer to get hacked.
  8. It is difficult to keep your email inbox free of spam.
  9. You can receive too much unwanted emails from unknow sources.
  10. Verifying someone identity through email is very difficult so you can be victimized by a fake person claiming to be someone you know or someone famous.
  11. Bank Frauds can be made by hacker using email.
  12. You may not know about the person with whom you are communicating.

Write a note on News Groups?
News Group:

A newsgroup is an Internet-based discussion about a particular topic. These topics range from sports, cars, investing, teen problems, and some stuff you probably don’t want to know about. Users post messages to a news server which then sends them to a bunch of other participating servers. Then other users can/access the newsgroup and read the postings. The groups can be either “moderated,” where a person or group decides which postings will become part of the discussion, or “unmoderated,” where everything posted is included in the discussion.

To participate in a newsgroup, you must subscribe to it. It typically doesn’t cost anything, but some groups can be hard to get into unless you know people in the group. Nearly all newsgroups are found on Usenet, which is a collection of servers around the world. Because of the global spectrum of newsgroups, they make up largest bulletin board system (BBS) in the world. Last time I checked, there were more than 13,000 newsgroups in existence, with new ones being added all the time. You can choose from a number of different “Newsreader” programs that allow you to access and participate in newsgroups. Newsgroup access has also been integrated into Netscape and Internet Explorer, so you can just use your Web browser if you want.

Students Note:

  1. Anything written in Red or same color as this line in for student information in these notes & does not needs to be memorized.
  2. Anything in these notes written with this color is not important because it is very outdated technology that no longer is being used or no longer exists. It is very less likely to appear in exams.

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