IT SKILLS Chapter 4 (2020)

Chapter No. 4

COMPUTER HARDWARE, SOFTWARE & LANGUAGE

Q: A Computer system have (04) Four parts, Explain briefly?

Or   Essential Computer Hardware categorized into (04) our Types, explain?


Or   Discuss primary hardware components of computer system. Also write the names of important hardware.?

Ans: Hardware:

Hardware is the set of physical and the material components that compounded or added to any electronic devices such as computers, smartphones, televisions etc

A computer system consists of two major elements hardware and software.

i)     Computer hardware:

Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch.

The internal hardware is itself composed of three main elements: Motherboard, Processor and other elements.

External hardware or peripherals correspond to multiple devices that connect externally and aims to add some extra functionality to the basic or primary device.

There is a wide range of peripherals designed depending on host device to which you want to connect, all of them can be grouped and classified into three large families.

Communication peripherals, Storage peripherals, Input output peripherals.

Primary Hardware Components

The primary hardware components of computer system are shown in the following figure. 

  1. Input Device:

Input device is used to give input to the computer in the form of data and instructions. It accepts input (data program instructions) in a form that a computer can use & understand. The most common used input devices are keyboard and mouse.

  • Processor:

Processor is the most important component of the computer. It is also known as Central Processing Unit (CPU). It is considered as the brain of the computer. It processes (or manipulates) input data according to the given instructions and converts it into useful information. It is further divided into two main components.

(1) Control Unit (CU)

(2) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).

3.    Memory Unit:

 The memory unit is also very important part of a computer. It is used to store data and instructions that are currently in use. The main memory or RAM is an example of memory unit.

4.    Output Device:

 The processed data is also known as output. The output device is used to get output from the computer. It gives processed data or results in a form that user can understand. The commonly used output devices are monitors and printers.

5. Secondary Storage Device:

 Secondary storage device is used to store data and programs permanently for later use. The commonly used secondary devices are hard disk, SSD, USB drive, floppy disk, and CD-ROM etc.

Hardware Devices:

The commonly used hardware devices in a computer system are as follows:

Input Devices:
Keyboard, Mouse, Microphone, Scanner, touch screen, touchpad, trackpad, Joystick etc.,

Output Devices:
Monitor, Printer, Speaker, Headphone, earphone, Projector etc.

Main Memory:
RAM and ROM

Secondary Memory:
Hard disk, SSD (Solid State Drive), USB drive, Floppy disk, Compact disk (CD-ROM), Tape etc.

Inter-Connectors:
Cables, Ports, Buses etc.

Network Devices:
Modem, Bridge, Router etc.

Q. What are the main Languages of the computer? Explain them briefly.
Answers:

Definition of Language:
 “Way of communication between two or more person is called language”

Programming Language / Computer Language:

“A computer language is a way of communication between user and the computer”

Each computer language has certain rules. These rules are called as the Syntax of that language.

Types of Computer languages are:

 1. Low Level Language.
2. Middle Level Language.
3. High Level Language.

1. Low Level Language:
“A language that is easily understandable by the computer is called low level language”

Types of Low-Level Language:
Low level language is further sub-divided into two types:

  1. Machine Language.
  2. Assembly Language.
  • . Machine Language:
    “A language which is directly understandable by the computer without being translated is called machine language”

Characteristics:
1. It is a machine dependent language.
2. It is also called first generation language.
3. It is written in the form of binary numbers that is in the form of “0” and “1”.
4. Program written in the machine language executes very fast.
5. Developing program in machine language is very difficult.

(b). Assembly Language:
“A language which has same features as machine language but uses symbols instead of “0” and “1” and also need to be translated before execution is called assembly language”.

Characteristics:
1. It was developed in 1950.
2. We use symbols or mnemonics code, so it is called symbolic language.
3. The program used to translate assembly language into machine language is called assembler.

2. Middle Level Language:
“The language which is understandable by the machine and human being is called middle level language”.

Example:

  1. “C” Language.
  2. Java Language.

Characteristics:
a. It was developed in 1960.
b. It is understandable for machine and human.
c. It is still difficult to develop program in this language.

  • High Level Language:
    “The language, which is closed to human language, is called high level language”      

 Characteristics:

  1. These languages are easy to understand by the human.
  2. They are also called “English Oriented Language”.
  3. High Level Language was developed in 1956.
  4. It is also called “User Friendly Language”.
  5. It is difficult for the machine to understand this language.
  6. Translator is required for computer to understand this language.
  7. It is easy for programming.
  8. It is easy to understand by humans.
  9. It is easy to operate.

Types of High-Level Language:
There are three types of high-level language:

  1. Procedural/Structured Language.
  2. Object Oriented Language.
  3. Database Query Language.


  4. Procedural/Structured Language:
    “Computer program follows a predetermined procedure”
    The computer instructions are executed by the order or in sequence in which they are written. These instructions tell the computer “what to do” and “How to do”. These languages are called third generation languages.

    The most popular procedural languages are:
    i. FORTRAN stands for “Formula Translation”.
    ii. BASIC stands for “Beginner all-purpose symbolic instruction code”


  5. Object Oriented Language:
    Object Oriented Programming is latest technology for writing computer programs. A computer program is written as a collection of number of objects. Each object performs specific task. It consists of data and-functions.

    Example:
    The most used object-oriented languages are C++, Java etc.


  6. Database Query Language:
    These languages are based on the special type of database called relational database. These languages are used to store, delete, edit and retrieve data from a database.

    Examples:
    The most commonly used Relational database are:
    1. SQL Server
    1. ORACLE
    1. MS-Access

Q: Difference between Procedural and Non-Procedural/Object Oriented language?

Ans:

Procedural Languages:

  1. Procedural language uses pre-defined procedures or functions for Programming.
  2. It executes in a strict sequence or order.
  3. It is difficult to debug procedural language program, if any error occurs.
  4. It occupies more memory than non-procedural language.
  5. “C, Cobol, Fortran” are examples of procedural language

Object Oriented language:

  1. Non-procedural languages use objects for programming.
  2. It does not follow any sequence or order.
  3. It is very easy to debug nonprocedural  language program, if any error occurs.
  4. It occupies less memory because object once created can be used again.
  5. C++ and Java are examples of non-procedural language.


Q: Difference between High Level language and Low-Level language?
Ans.

Difference between High-level and Low-level Language is as following:

         High-level language                                 Low-level language

1       High-level languages are                1       Low-level languages are
          easy to learn.                                            difficult to learn.

2       High-level languages are                2       Low-level languages are
          near to human Language.                        near to machine.

3       Program written in High-               3       Program written in Low
          level languages are slow in                     level languages are fast in
          execution.                                                 execution.

4       Program written in High-               4       Program written in Low-
          level languages are easy to                     level languages are difficult
          modify.                                                      to modify

5       High-level languages do not          5       Low-level languages
           provide facility at hardware                   provide facility at hardware
          level.                                                          level.

6       These languages are                       6        These languages are
normally used to write                            normally used to write
system software’s.                                    Application software’s.

7       Error removing is difficult in         7       Error removing is easy in
High-level Language.                                low-level Language.

8       C++, Java are the example             8       Machine language,
of high-level language.                            assembly language is the
                                                                   example of low-level language

Q: Difference between Source Code and Object Code?
Ans:

Difference between source code and object code as following:

          Source Code                                              Object Code

1       A computer program written        1       A computer program written
in high-level language is                          in low-level language
called source code.                                   called object code.

2       It is also called source                   2       It is also called object
Program.                                                    Program.

3       The source program can                3       The object program can run
not run directly on the                            directly on the computer.
computer.

Q. What are Language Processors Translators?  Briefly describe the various types?

Ans:

Language Translators:


Programs written in high-level languages must be converted into machine language for execution by the computer. Special programs are used to convert source code into object code. These programs are called Language Processors or Language Translators.

There are two types of translators used in high-level language:

  1. Compiler:
    1. The language translator that translates programs written in high-level language as a whole is called compiler.
    1. The compiler translates the source code into object code.
    1. The program is compiled only once and can be executed several times directly on the computer.
    1. It saves the compiled program into another file called object file with extension “ .obi ”. The computer directly executes the object code.
    1. If there is any error in the source program, the compiler specifies the error at the time of compilation.
    1. All errors must be removed before the compiler successfully compiles the source program.


  2. Interpreter:
    1. The language translators that executes a source program by translating one instruction at a time is called interpreter.
    1. If there is any error in the program. It indicates the error and stops the program execution.
    1. It does not create any object file.
    1. It translates the source program each time the program is executed.
    1. It works slowly.

Difference between compiler and interpreter?

                   Compiler                                         Interpreter

1       It translates the source                  1       It translates the source
program as a whole.                                 program instruction one by
                                                                   one and execute.

2       It creates an object file with.         2       It does not create any object
.obj extension.                                          file.

3       It requires large memory in           3       It does not require large
computer.                                                  memory in computer.

4       It runs faster.                                   4       It runs slower.                       

5       Compiler is not easy to write.       5       Interpreter is easy to write.

6       For Example, Compiler used in     6       For Example, Interpreter
          C or C++ language.                                   used in BASIC or Internet
                                                                             Explorer.   

Q. What is DOS command? Explain its types?

Ans:

DOS Commands
A command is a set of instructions, which is used to perform a specific task. The command is given at the DOS prompt with complete syntax. The Enter key is pressed to run the command on computer. The result of command appears on the screen.

Types of DOS Commands:
There are two types of DOS command:

  1. Internal Commands
  2. External Commands.
  1. Internal Commands:

DOS internal commands are stored in the COMMAND.COM file. These are loaded automatically into the memory during booting process. These include the commonly used commands. Internal commands are pan of Command.com thus you see their names in directory listing. These command’s remain in memory during the execution of DOS. Some of the internal DOS commands are: CLS, DIR, DATE, TIME, EXIT etc.

  • External Commands:

DOS external commands are those, which need special files for their execution. The DOS commands which are not frequently used are given as external commands. The three types of files that can run as external commands are COM, EXE and BAT files. Some of the external DOS commands are: CHKDSK, DEL TREE< FORMAT, XCOP etc.

List different features of Operating System?

Ans:
Some important features of operating system are as follows:
1.
Multi-Tasking:
Multi-tasking is the capability of loading multiple programs in memory and executing them at the same time. Windows   operating system is a multi-tasking system we can run more than one program at the same time. The user can edit a document while listening to audio recording.

2. Multi-User:
It means that many users can use the computer at the same time. These users can be connected to a computer over the internet. Microsoft windows based operating systems are multi-user operating systems.

3. Multi-Processing:

Multi-Processing is the capability to support and utilize multiple processor at the same time in a computer. Two or more processors can execute different task at the same time. It increases the efficiency of the computer.

                                  OR

Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system. The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them.

4. Plug and Play:
Plug-and-Play is the capability to detect and configure a device and install the appropriate device driver. Windows operating system has the feature plug-and-play. It contains many device drivers. When a new device is attached to computer, it detects the device and install its driver if it is available.

5. Back and Recovery:

Backup and recovery feature is used to backup data and recover it in case of hard disk failure. Window XP allows   back up of files and data on hard disk or other digital media.

6. Networking:
Windows provides networking features. It provides the facility to establish, maintain and troubleshoot a network.

** There are two definitions for Multiprocessing you only have to learn one**

Q: What is Software? Write down (02) two main types of Computer Software with examples, Express software relation in-between WAN and LAN

Or   What is software? Describe different categories I types of software.

Ans: Software:

Computer software is not something you can touch physically. Software is a set of instructions given to a computer to perform specific operations. You need, both hardware and software for a computer system to work.

Types of Software:
Software can be classified into two main categories/types: –

1.  System Software.

2. Programming software.

3. Application Software.

  1. System Software:
    System software serves as a base for application software, System software includes device drivers, operating systems (OS), compilers, disk formatters, text editors and utilities helping the computer to operate more efficiently. It is also responsible for managing hardware components and providing basic non-task-specific-functions. The system software is usually written in C programming language.
    Most Popular system software:
    Operating system is the main and the most popular type of system software.
    Definition of System Software:
    A program or set of programs that is especially designed to control different operations of computer system is called system software. It controls the working of different components of the computer.
    The system software also enables the other application programs to execute properly.
    Examples of system software:
    Operating systems, utility programs, and device drivers.

  2. Programming software:
    Programming software is a set of tools to aid developers in writing programs. The various tools available are compilers, linkers, debuggers, interpreters and text editors.
  3. Application Software:
    Application software is intended to perform certain tasks.
    Examples of application software include:
    office suites, gaming applications, database systems and educational software. Application software can be a single program or a collection of small programs.

    This type of software is what consumers most typically think of as “software.” 

Method to get Software and installation:
Software’s can be downloaded to a computer over the Internet. Once downloaded, setup files are run to start the installation process on your computer. Software can also be purchased at a retail computer store or online and come in a box containing all the disks (floppy diskette, CD, DVD, Btu-ray Disc or USB drive).

Definition of Application Software:
A program or set of programs that are especially designed to solve the specific problems of users, are called application software. It is also known as software package.
Types of application software:
There are different kinds of application software such as commercial software, scientific software, financial packages, games, multimedia software etc.

Categories of Application Software
The application software is divided into two

i)     Custom built software.

ii)    Packaged software.

  1. Custom built Software

The software that is developed for a specific customer or organization is called custom built software. It is also known as customized software.
For example:
Software developed to maintain the records of students for a specific college.

  1. Packaged Software:

The software that is developed for sale to the general public is called packaged software. Packaged software is used to solve some common problem of many people or users.

Examples of packaged software:

  1. Word processor such as MS-Word.
  2. Spreadsheet such as MS-Excel.
  3. Database software such as MS-Access.
  4. Graphics software such as Adobe Photoshop and CorelDraw.
  5. Communication software such as Google Chrome and firefox.

Software relation in-between WAN and LAN

LAN:
A local area network (LAN) links computers in close proximity, connecting them by cables or by wireless technology.
WAN:
A wide area network (WAN) covers a relatively large geographical area and connects computers by telephone lines, wireless technology.

Q. What are the differences between hardware and software?

Ans. The main differences between hardware and software:

Hardware:

1.    Hardware is the physical parts of the computer.

2.    You can touch, see and feel hardware.

3.    Hardware is constructed using physical materials of components.

4.    Computer is hardware, which operates under the control of software.

5.    If hardware is damaged, it is replaced with new one.

6.    Hardware is not affected by computer viruses.

7.    Hardware cannot be transferred from one place to another through computer network.

8.    User cannot make new duplicate copies of the hardware.

Software:

1.    Software is a set of instructions used to solve a specific problem.

2.    You cannot touch and feel software.

3.    Software is developed by writing instructions by following the rules of programming language.

4.    The operations of computer are controlled through software.

5.    If software is damaged or corrupted its backup copy can be reinstalled.

6.    Software can get affected by computer viruses.

7.    Software can be transferred from one place to another through computer network.

8.    User can make many new duplicate copies of the software.

Q: Differentiate between operating system, utility and application programs/software/app?

 Ans: Difference between operating system, Utility programs and application programs/software/app as following:

  1. Working Principle:
    Operating system
    is a program or set of programs that is especially designed to control the working of different components of the computer & different operations of computer system.
    While application software is a computer based program that is designed to perform some tasks that are grouped together and helps people in completing their work at faster speeds.

  2. Sources:
    Operating system comes mostly installed on the device we purchase
    while application software is mostly downloaded from the internet.

  3. Size:
    Operating system usually has biggest size ranging in GBs
    while application software has smaller size ranging in MBs.

  4. Dependency:Application software cannot work without an operating system
    whereas the operating system can work without application software.

  5. Requirement:A computer only requires one operating system while application software is optional, and you can install as many as you require.

  6. Example:
    Microsoft Windows and Linux are well known examples of Operating system
    While Google Chrome and MS office suite is well known examples of application software.
    **(Google chrome is a web-browser and MS-Office suite is Microsoft bundle of software’s such word, excel and PowerPoint).

Q.   Describe any three (03) most common type of Application Software


Or   What is application software? Give name of three   application software you use.

Or   Write a detailed note on Application Software.

Ans: Application Software:

“A program or set of programs that are especially designed to solve the specific problems of users and helps user in completing their work at faster speeds “.

There are two types of application software:

1. Custom-built Software.

2. Packaged Software.

1. Custom-built Software:

  “This is the software that is designed and developed for the demand of particular customer”

 This type of software is designed to meet the exact requirements of a customer.  

 Example:

 Banks Software, Departmental Software; NADRA Software etc. 

 2. Packaged Software:

 “This is the software that is designed or developed for sale to the general users or customers for their use”

 Customers purchase this type of application software according to his/her needs.

 Example:

 Microsoft Word, Windows, Microsoft Office etc.

Commonly used application packages are:

l. Word Processing Packages     

2. Spread Sheet

3. Database Management System

4. Electronic Communication

5. Drawing and Graphics

6. Enhanced Presentation 

1. Word Processing Package: Word processing software’s are used to write letters and other text documents in computer. The computer program that provides these facilities in the computer is called word processing package.

 Most widely used word processing package is MS Word.

2. Spread Sheet:
These packages. are used in business applications. Spreadsheet provides very efficient method of mathematic calculation on tabular. data (in the form of rows and columns). Spreadsheet can also be used to take decision based on data.

Most widely used spreadsheet program is MS Excel.    

3. Database Management System:
A database is a collection of data stored in an organized way. These packages provide facilities for efficient storage and retrieval of data in files.

Most widely used Database Management System software’s are. 

  1. MS Access
  2. Oracle
  3. FoxPro etc.

4. Electronic Communication:
We can use computers to send and receive emails through internet. Several programs are available for electronic communication.

For Example:

a. Google Chrome
b. Firefox
c. Outlook

5. Drawing and Graphics:
Computer graphics software provides the capability to transfer a series of numeric values into graphics for easier analysis and interpretation. Drawing programs are used to create graphics and images.

For Example:

  1. Adobe Photoshop
  2. Coral Draw
  3. AutoCAD

6. Enhanced Presentation:
A presentation program like MS PowerPoint is used to make professional presentations. These presentations can be printed or directly used on projector or big LCD/LED Screens. You can also use these presentations on computer screen.

For Example:

  1. MS PowerPoint
  2. Google Slides
  3. Libra Slides

Q: What is Software? Write down (02) two main types of Computer Software with examples, Express software relation in-between WAN and LAN

Or   What is software? Describe different categories I types of software.

Ans: Software:

Computer software is not something you can touch physically. Software is a set of instructions given to a computer to perform specific operations. You need, both hardware and software for a computer system to work.

Types of Software:
Software can be classified into two main categories/types: –

1.  System Software.

2. Programming software.

3. Application Software.

  1. System Software:
    System software serves as a base for application software, System software includes device drivers, operating systems (OS), compilers, disk formatters, text editors and utilities helping the computer to operate more efficiently. It is also responsible for managing hardware components and providing basic non-task-specific-functions. The system software is usually written in C programming language.
    Most Popular system software:
    Operating system is the main and the most popular type of system software.
    Definition of System Software:
    A program or set of programs that is especially designed to control different operations of computer system is called system software. It controls the working of different components of the computer.
    The system software also enables the other application programs to execute properly.
    Examples of system software:
    Operating systems, utility programs, and device drivers.

  2. Programming software:
    Programming software is a set of tools to aid developers in writing programs. The various tools available are compilers, linkers, debuggers, interpreters and text editors.
  3. Application Software:
    Application software is intended to perform certain tasks.
    Examples of application software include:
    office suites, gaming applications, database systems and educational software. Application software can be a single program or a collection of small programs.

    This type of software is what consumers most typically think of as “software.” 

Method to get Software and installation:
Software’s can be downloaded to a computer over the Internet. Once downloaded, setup files are run to start the installation process on your computer. Software can also be purchased at a retail computer store or online and come in a box containing all the disks (floppy diskette, CD, DVD, Btu-ray Disc or USB drive).

Definition of Application Software:
A program or set of programs that are especially designed to solve the specific problems of users, are called application software. It is also known as software package.
Types of application software:
There are different kinds of application software such as commercial software, scientific software, financial packages, games, multimedia software etc.

Categories of Application Software
The application software is divided into two

i)     Custom built software.

ii)    Packaged software.

  1. Custom built Software

The software that is developed for a specific customer or organization is called custom built software. It is also known as customized software.
For example:
Software developed to maintain the records of students for a specific college.

  1. Packaged Software:

The software that is developed for sale to the general public is called packaged software. Packaged software is used to solve some common problem of many people or users.

Examples of packaged software:

  1. Word processor such as MS-Word.
  2. Spreadsheet such as MS-Excel.
  3. Database software such as MS-Access.
  4. Graphics software such as Adobe Photoshop and CorelDraw.
  5. Communication software such as Google Chrome and firefox.

Software relation in-between WAN and LAN

LAN:
A local area network (LAN) links computers in close proximity, connecting them by cables or by wireless technology.
WAN:
A wide area network (WAN) covers a relatively large geographical area and connects computers by telephone lines, wireless technology.

Q. What are the differences between hardware and software?

Ans. The main differences between hardware and software:

Hardware:

1.    Hardware is the physical parts of the computer.

2.    You can touch, see and feel hardware.

3.    Hardware is constructed using physical materials of components.

4.    Computer is hardware, which operates under the control of software.

5.    If hardware is damaged, it is replaced with new one.

6.    Hardware is not affected by computer viruses.

7.    Hardware cannot be transferred from one place to another through computer network.

8.    User cannot make new duplicate copies of the hardware.

Software:

1.    Software is a set of instructions used to solve a specific problem.

2.    You cannot touch and feel software.

3.    Software is developed by writing instructions by following the rules of programming language.

4.    The operations of computer are controlled through software.

5.    If software is damaged or corrupted its backup copy can be reinstalled.

6.    Software can get affected by computer viruses.

7.    Software can be transferred from one place to another through computer network.

8.    User can make many new duplicate copies of the software.

Q: Differentiate between operating system, utility and application programs/software/app?

 Ans: Difference between operating system, Utility programs and application programs/software/app as following:

  1. Working Principle:
    Operating system
    is a program or set of programs that is especially designed to control the working of different components of the computer & different operations of computer system.
    While application software is a computer based program that is designed to perform some tasks that are grouped together and helps people in completing their work at faster speeds.

  2. Sources:
    Operating system comes mostly installed on the device we purchase
    while application software is mostly downloaded from the internet.

  3. Size:
    Operating system usually has biggest size ranging in GBs
    while application software has smaller size ranging in MBs.

  4. Dependency:Application software cannot work without an operating system
    whereas the operating system can work without application software.

  5. Requirement:A computer only requires one operating system while application software is optional, and you can install as many as you require.

Example:
Microsoft Windows and Linux are well known examples of Operating system
While Google Chrome and MS office suite is well known examples of application software.
**(Google chrome is a web-browser and MS-Office suite is Microsoft bundle of software’s such word, excel and PowerPoint).

Q.   Describe any three (03) most common type of Application Software


Or   What is application software? Give name of three   application software you use.

Or   Write a detailed note on Application Software.

Ans: Application Software:

“A program or set of programs that are especially designed to solve the specific problems of users and helps user in completing their work at faster speeds “.

There are two types of application software:

1. Custom-built Software.

2. Packaged Software.

1. Custom-built Software:

  “This is the software that is designed and developed for the demand of particular customer”

 This type of software is designed to meet the exact requirements of a customer.  

 Example:

 Banks Software, Departmental Software; NADRA Software etc. 

 2. Packaged Software:

 “This is the software that is designed or developed for sale to the general users or customers for their use”

 Customers purchase this type of application software according to his/her needs.

 Example:

 Microsoft Word, Windows, Microsoft Office etc.

Commonly used application packages are:

l. Word Processing Packages     

2. Spread Sheet

3. Database Management System

4. Electronic Communication

5. Drawing and Graphics

6. Enhanced Presentation 

1. Word Processing Package: Word processing software’s are used to write letters and other text documents in computer. The computer program that provides these facilities in the computer is called word processing package.

 Most widely used word processing package is MS Word.

2. Spread Sheet:
These packages. are used in business applications. Spreadsheet provides very efficient method of mathematic calculation on tabular. data (in the form of rows and columns). Spreadsheet can also be used to take decision based on data.

Most widely used spreadsheet program is MS Excel.    

3. Database Management System:
A database is a collection of data stored in an organized way. These packages provide facilities for efficient storage and retrieval of data in files.

Most widely used Database Management System software’s are. 

  1. MS Access
  2. Oracle
  3. FoxPro etc.

4. Electronic Communication:
We can use computers to send and receive emails through internet. Several programs are available for electronic communication.

For Example:

a. Google Chrome
b. Firefox
c. Outlook

5. Drawing and Graphics:
Computer graphics software provides the capability to transfer a series of numeric values into graphics for easier analysis and interpretation. Drawing programs are used to create graphics and images.

For Example:

  1. Adobe Photoshop
  2. Coral Draw
  3. AutoCAD

6. Enhanced Presentation:
A presentation program like MS PowerPoint is used to make professional presentations. These presentations can be printed or directly used on projector or big LCD/LED Screens. You can also use these presentations on computer screen.

For Example:

  1. MS PowerPoint
  2. Google Slides
  3. Libra Slides

What is System Software and Utility Program?

Ans: System Software:

1. System Software consists of the programs that control and manage the operations of the computer hardware.

2. It serves as an interface between the user, application program and the computer hardware.

3. No interaction is possible with computers without system software.

 For Example:

 Operating System is system software. In order to use the computer, you must have an operating system installed on the computer to control its hardware.

Utility Program: 

 A utility program is a type of System software that performs specific tasks for the user. It is normally, used to solve the common problems of user.

Some examples of utilities programs are:

  1. File Viewer:
    File viewer is used to view and manage files in   computer system. Windows Explorer is an example of file viewer.

  2. File Compression Software:
     File compression is used to shrink or reduce the file size. WinZip is an example of File Compression.
  3. Antivirus:
    A type of software that is used to detect and remove viruses & malware is called antivirus software. It also prevents viruses from infecting your computer.

Q. What is Operating System? Write down important functions of operating systems?
Answer:

Operating System:

 An operating system is a set of programs running on a computer system and provides an environment in which other programs can be executed and the computer system can be used effectively.

Explanation:

In order to use a computer to solve our daily problems i.e. to store records, a user must input instructions / data to the computer. But computer hardware does not understand the human language, so we need an application to translate our instructions for computer hardware to understand and solve the problem accordingly. A programmer must write application in machine language. Machine language is very complex and only expert programmers can work in machine language but most programmer cannot work in machine language hence they use programming language which is closer to human language then computer language, for that a translation tool is required which is part of operating system i.e. complier.

To use the computer easily, we require software known as Operating System (OS).

What Operating System (OS) does:

1. An operating system is a set of programs that manages all computer components and operations.
2. A computer cannot be operated without operating system.
3. Operating system must be installed on every computer.
4. Users can interact with the computer through operating system.
5. When computer is turned on, the operating system runs and checks that which parts are connected and functioning properly.
6. Operating system manages all operations of computer after loading.

We can simply say that:
“Operating system is a master program that helps users to interact with computer hardware”

Function of Operating System (OS): 

  1. Starting a computer.
  2. Providing a user interface
  3. Managing Programs
  4. Managing Memory
  5. Configuration Devices
  6. Connecting with internet
  7. Control the network

 TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM:

 There are two types of operating system: 
a. Personal Operating System.
b. Network Operating System.

a. Personal Operating System:A type of operating system in which only one user can work at a time is called personal user operating system. DOS is an example of personal operating system.

There are two types of personal operating system:
1. Command line interface Operating System.
2. Graphical User Interface Operating System.

  1. Command Line Interface Operating System:
    An operating system without any GUI and can only be interacted with help of different commands is called command line operating system. Also known as command line interface (CLI).
    Example:
    DOS stands for Disk Operating System. It was developed by Microsoft in 1981. It was very famous.
  2. Graphical User Interface Operating System:
    An operating system that provides Graphical Interface to interact with computer is called Graphic User interface operating system. Also known as GUI.

Example:
Windows is a “Graphical User Interface Operating System”.  It is multi-tasking operating system which means It can run more than one program simultaneously.

b. NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM:
A type of operating system in which more than one user can work at a time is called network operating system. UNIX, Linux and Windows NT/2000 are the example of multiuser or network operating system.

UNIX:

It was developed in 1969 at AT & T Laboratories, USA. It is mainly used in universities and research organizations. It is difficult to learn and use. UNIX was designed to work on networks.  LINUX:

It can be used as a personal or network operating system. It is open source operating system. It is secure and powerful operating system. 

** Sun Solaris:

 It is a version of UNIX operating system developed by Sun Micro System. It is a network operating system designed specifically for E-Commerce Applications.

** Netware:
 It is a network operating system designed for client-server networks. It provides the facility to used more than one user at a time.

Windows NT / 2000:

It is an operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation. It is a 32-bit operating system. It is primarily targeted to client-server- networking environments.

Difference between DOS and Windows        

DOSWindows
1. DOS is command line interface.1. Window is Graphical User Interface.
2. It is difficult to learn.2. It is easier to learn.
3. It can perform single task at a time.3. It is multi-tasking.
4. It is single-user operating system.4. It is multi-user Operating System.
5. It does not support (Plug and Play).5. It support (Plug and play).
6. It supports 16bit file system only.6. It supports 16 & 32 bit file system.
7. It requires less memory for installation.7. It required more memory for installation than DOS

close

Oh hi there 👋
It’s nice to meet you.

Sign up to receive awesome content in your inbox.

We don’t spam! Read our privacy policy for more info.

%d bloggers like this: